Seferina Ortiz

Deer Dancer figures

Cochiti Pueblo has a long history of producing figurative pottery and has become well known for its "storyteller" figures. Storytellers are usually seated, usually female and often have one or more children on their laps or backs. Seferina Ortiz (1931-2007) was one of the most respected of the figure-making potters of Cochiti Pueblo.

Her mother, Laurencita Herrera, taught her how to make pottery early in life and Seferina continued making pottery almost until the day she died. She also passed the basics of the tradition along to her children and grandchildren, including Lisa Holt and Inez, Virgil and Joyce Ortiz. All of them became skilled at making storyteller and animal figures. Joyce became well known for her mermaid and nativity sets and miniature storytellers. Virgil pioneered a revival of the 19th century style of standing human figures and added social commentary to his mix. Inez also made beautiful large figures while Lisa teamed up with Harlan Reano of Santo Domingo and they became award-winning potters, too.

Cochiti Pueblo has a longstanding tradition of using comic figures to comment on outsiders. Seferina said she invented the bathing beauty and mermaid figures "when they built Cochiti Dam, all these white people were coming to swim at the lake and they'd flooded the fields, so I thought about making these (figures) with bathing suits and tails. We never had them before."

The members of the Ortiz family have always shown deep respect for the traditions of their people while also exercising their individual creativity. A close-knit multi-generational family, they would often share the tasks of gathering and processing clay, tempering the clay with sand and performing communal cow dung firings, with the firings usually done at Seferina's house.

Seferina's work is shown in many museum and private collections. The Peabody Museum of Harvard University alone has 32 pieces of her pottery in its collection. She contributed a piece called "Cochiti Bathing Beauty" to the Smithsonian exhibit of American Encounters, 1991-2004.

During her life she won numerous awards for her pottery at events such as the SWAIA Santa Fe Indian Market. She signed her work: "S. Ortiz, Cochiti".

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Cochiti Pueblo

The view west from Cochiti Lake
View west across Cochiti Pueblo

Cochiti Pueblo lies fifteen miles south of Santa Fe along the west bank of the Rio Grande. What is now Bandelier National Monument is the pueblo's most recent ancestral home. They may have relocated to the Bandelier area from the Four Corners region around 1300.

Cochiti legend says that Clay Old Woman and Clay Old Man came to visit the Cochitis. While all the people watched, Clay Old Woman shaped a pot. Clay Old Man danced too close and kicked the pot. He rolled the clay from the broken pot into a ball, gave a piece to all the women in the village and told them never to forget to make pottery.

Ancestral home of the Cochiti people
At Bandelier National Monument

In protohistoric times, human effigy pots, animals, duck canteens and bird shaped pitchers with beaks as spouts were common productions of the Cochiti potters. Many of these were condemned as idols and destroyed by the Spaniards. That problem left when the Spanish left in 1820 but the fantastic array of figurines created by Cochiti potters was essentially dormant until the railroad arrived. Then Cochiti potters were among the first to enter the tourist market and they produced many whimsical figures into the early 1900's. Then production followed the market into more conventional shapes.

Legend has it that a Ringling Brothers Circus train broke down near Cochiti Pueblo in the 1920's. The tribe's contact with the ringmaster, trapeze artists, opera singers, sideshow "freaks" and exotic animals paved the way for a variety of new figural subjects. An astute observer will find angels, nativities, cowboys, tourist caricatures, snakes, dinosaurs, turtles, goats, two-headed opera singers, clowns, tattooed strongmen, Moorish nuns and even mermaids in the Cochiti pottery pantheon, most produced only since the early 1960's and based on characters described in Cochiti's oral history.

A few modern potters make traditional styled pots with black and red flowers, animals, clouds, lightning and geometric designs but most Cochiti pottery artists now create figurines. Most notable is the storyteller, a grandfather or grandmother figure with "babies" perched on it. Helen Cordero is credited with creating the first storyteller in 1964 to honor her grandfather. The storyteller style was quickly picked up by other pueblos and each modified the form to match their local situation (ie: clay colors and tribal and religious traditions). In some pueblos, storytellers are also now made as drummers and as a large variety of animals.

Today, Cochiti potters face the challenge of acquiring the clay for the white slip. Construction of Cochiti Dam in the 1960's destroyed their primary source of their trademark white slip and gray clay. Now the white slip comes from one dwindling source at Santo Domingo, Cochiti Pueblo's neighbor to the south.

Most outsiders who visit Cochiti Pueblo these days do so on the way to or from either the recreation area on Cochiti Lake or Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument.

Map showing location of Cochiti Pueblo

For more info:
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100 West San Francisco Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501
(505) 986-1234 - - All Rights Reserved