Marilyn Ray

Marilyn Ray
Two children on an Acoma grandmother storyteller figure with an assortment of gifts and household pets

Marilyn Lewis Ray was born to Edward and Kathryn Lewis of Acoma Pueblo in 1954. She is a member of one of the two non-related Lewis families at Acoma: the Lucy Lewis family of traditional potters is the more well known while the children of Kathryn Lewis (Rebecca Lucario, Marilyn Ray, Carolyn Concho, Diane Lewis and Judy Lewis) have been making some of the most innovative and contemporary pottery being produced at Acoma. Each member of the family has carved out their own particular niche and Marilyn has long been focused on the art of the storyteller.

In Native American pottery art, a storyteller refers to a figure, usually a grandparent, adorned with smaller figures of children. In Puebloan society, their histories are oral, to be sung in their native languages. The storyteller is an elder figure who sings the stories of their tribal culture to pass that knowledge on to the children. Helen Cordero of Cochiti Pueblo made the first storyteller in 1964 in honor of her grandfather, a great storyteller. The tradition soon spread to other pueblos, each potter adapting the dress and hairstyles to their own society but also each exhibiting a distinctive and delightful expression of the intense love the Pueblo people have for their children. Figures with an open mouth represent a grandparent or parent singing or telling stories to their children.

Marilyn’s playful figures capture her deep sense of humor: some of the children are climbing, some playing with puppies, some just being mischievous. She says she was inspired to make pottery by her late grandmother, Dolores S. Sanchez, who encouraged her to make small animal figurines when she was twelve. Marilyn also sold her small pieces alongside those of her grandmother.

Her grandparents took her with them to help mine the clay. They taught her to use natural materials that were abundant to decorate her pieces. Most importantly, they taught her how to use the sacred earth to make a living. Marilyn's motivation intensified after her grandmother gave her a special polishing stone.

Years later, Marilyn grew bored with just black, orange and white, the basic colors for which Acoma potters are known. She began to experiment with colored clay slips and over the next four years discovered twelve new colors to use on her figures. She says she tries to work on figurines at least six hours a day but she also has to tend to her family: as she has told us many times, "I love to be home with my husband and Cinnamon Dog."

In addition to her storytellers, Marilyn likes to make Friendship/Corn Meal bowls (with butterflies, lady bugs and children hanging over the sides), Nativities, Singing Maidens, Corn Maidens and animals (including bear storytellers with cubs and turtles carrying children). Her sense of humor and love of life are evident in all her creations. Marilyn also puts time aside to work with other potters, both to inspire and to be inspired.

Marilyn's storytellers have become collectors items. They have been featured in several books and magazines including Douglas Congdon-Martin's book Storytellers and other Figurative Pottery. In January 1993, her work was even featured on an Albuquerque billboard.

Marilyn's art has earned her more than 300 prize ribbons, including many from The Heard Museum Show in Phoenix, the SWAIA Santa Fe Indian Market, Eight Northern Pueblos Arts and Crafts Show and Gallup Inter-Tribal Ceremonials, among others. She signs her work: "Marilyn Ray, Acoma, NM" along with a date and a lizard hallmark.

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Acoma Pueblo

Acoma from the air
Sky City

According to Acoma oral history, the sacred twins led their ancestors to "Ako," a magical mesa composed mostly of white rock, and instructed those ancestors to make that mesa their home. Acoma Pueblo is called "Sky City" because of its position atop the mesa.

Acoma, Old Oraibi (at Hopi) and Taos all lay claim to being the oldest continuously inhabited community in the U.S. Those competing claims are hard to settle as each village can point to archaeological remnants close by to substantiate each village's claim. Acoma is located about 60 miles west of Albuquerque.

While the people of Acoma have an oral tradition that says they've been living in the same area for more than 2,000 years, archaeologists feel more that the present pueblo was established near the end of the major migrations in the 1300's. The location is essentially on the boundary between the Mogollon (Mimbres), Hohokam (Salado) and Anasazi (Ancestral Pueblo) cultures. Each of those cultures has had an impact on the styles and designs of Acoma pottery, especially since modern potters have been getting the inspiration for many of their designs from pot shards they have found while walking on pueblo lands.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado ascended the cliff to visit Acoma in 1540. He afterward wrote that he "repented having gone up to the place." But the Spanish came back later and kept coming back. Around In 1598 relations between the Spanish and the Acoma took a really bad turn with the arrival of Don Juan de Onate and the soldiers, settlers and Franciscan monks that accompanied him. After ascending to the mesa top, Onate decided to force the Acomas to swear loyalty to the King of Spain and to the Pope. When the Acomas realized what the Spanish meant by that, a group of Acoma warriors attacked a group of Spanish soldiers and killed 11 of them, including one of Onate's nephews. Don Juan de Onate retaliated by attacking the pueblo, burning most of it and killing more than 600 people. Another 500 people were imprisoned by the Spanish, males between the ages of 12 and 25 were sold into slavery and 24 men over the age of 25 had their right foot amputated. Many of the women over the age of 12 were also forced into slavery and were parceled out among Catholic convents in Mexico City. Two Hopi men were also captured at Acoma and, after having one hand cut off, they were released and sent home to spread the word about Spain's resolve to subjugate the inhabitants of Nuevo Mexico (while Spanish monks did make the almost fruitless trip, Spanish military never did make an appearance in Hopiland).

When word of the massacre (and the punishments meted out after) got back to King Philip in Spain, he banished Don Juan de Onate from Nuevo Mexico. Some Acomas had escaped that fateful Spanish attack and returned to the mesa top in 1599 to begin rebuilding.

In 1620 a Royal Decree was issued which established civil offices in each pueblo and Acoma had its first governor appointed. By 1680, the situation between the pueblos and the Spanish had deteriorated again to the point where the Acomas were extremely willing participants in the 1680 Pueblo Revolt.

After the successful Pueblo Revolt and the Spanish had retreated back to Mexico, refugees from other pueblos began to arrive at Acoma, fearing the eventual Spanish return and probable reprisals. That strained the resources of Acoma until the Spanish returned and residents of the pueblo had to make a hard decision. Many of the refugees chose to try a peaceful solution: they relocated to the ancient Laguna area and made peace with the Spanish as soon as they reappeared in the region.

Over the next 200 years, Acoma suffered from breakouts of smallpox and other European diseases to which they had no immunity. At times they would side with the Spanish against nomadic raiders from the Ute, Apache and Comanche tribes. Eventually New Mexico changed hands, then the railroads arrived and Acoma became dependent on goods made in the outside world.

For many years the villagers were content on the mesa. Now most live in villages on the valley floor where water, electricity and other necessities are easily available while a few families still make their permanent home on the mesa top. The old pueblo is used almost exclusively these days for ceremonial celebrations.

Acoma's dense, slate-like clay, allows the pottery to be thin, lightweight and durable. After the pot is formed, it is painted with a slip of white clay. Black and red design motifs are added using mineral and plant derived paints. Fine lines, geometrics, parrots and old Mimbres designs are commonly seen motifs. The traditional paintbrush for Acoma potters is made from the yucca plant.

Historically Acoma was known for large, thin-walled "ollas," jars used for storing food and water. With the arrival of the railroad and tourists in the 1880's, Acoma potters adapted the size, shapes and styles of their pots in order to appeal to the new buyers.

Acoma Pueblo is home to noted potters of the Lewis and Chino families, as well as many others. Acoma potters felt it was an inappropriate display of ego to put their signature on a pot up into the mid-1960's. The 1960's is also a time when the primary white clay vein mined by the Acomas passed through a layer of widely distributed impurities, impurities that passed through the pottery making process and appeared only in the firing. Or worse yet, sometimes well after firing. The clay problem was so bad it affected virtually every potter in the pueblo and every pot they made. So many pots spalled that even the best potters sold them anyway, often signed. Thankfully, by the late 1960's they had dug through that layer of clay and into a deeper layer that didn't have the problem.

Acoma Pueblo c. 1923
Acoma Pueblo c. 1932
Map showing location of Acoma Pueblo

For more info:
at Wikipedia
official website
Pueblos of the Rio Grande, Daniel Gibson, ISBN-13:978-1-887896-26-9, Rio Nuevo Publishers, 2001
Upper photo courtesy of Marshall Henrie, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License

100 West San Francisco Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501
(505) 986-1234 - - All Rights Reserved